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Archaeology has revealed dog remains of various sizes but there does not appear to have been distinctive breeds until 3,000-4,000 years ago when greyhound-type dogs were depicted on pottery and paintings in Egypt and Western Asia. Mastiff-type dogs were kept for guarding and hunting, and short-legged dogs were also bred. By Roman times, most of the breed-types known today were well-defined and their qualities and functions recorded. Dog breeds proliferated in Europe during the Middle Ages 700 years ago.[2] Most modern dog breeds are the products of the controlled breeding practices of the Victorian era (1830-1900),[3][4] and the accurate documenting of pedigrees with the establishment of the English Kennel Club in 1873 in imitation of other stud book registries for cattle and horses.[5] For early depictions of dogs in art, see early history. Genetic evidence of breeds[edit] Wolf Shar Pei Shiba Inu Chow Chow Akita Inu Basenji Siberian Husky Alaskan Malamute Afghan Hound Saluki other breeds in the study Cladogram of 9 breeds that are genetically divergent from others[6] Ancient dog breeds[edit] Ancient breed of dogs was a term once used for a group of dog breeds by the American Kennel Club,[4] but no longer.[7] These breeds were referred to as "ancient breeds", as opposed to modern breeds, because historically it was believed that they had origins dating back over 500 years. In 2004, a study looked at the microsatellites of 414 purebred dogs representing 85 breeds. The study found that dog breeds were so genetically distinct that 99% of individual dogs could be correctly assigned to their breed based on their genotype, indicating that breeding barriers (pure-bred breeding) has led to distinct genetic units. The study identified 9 breeds that could be represented on the branches of a phylogenetic tree which grouped together with strong statistical support and could be separated from the other breeds with a modern European origin. These 9 breeds had been referred to as "ancient breeds", as opposed to the modern breeds. The study found that the Pharaoh Hound and Ibizan Hound were not as old as believed but had been recreated from combinations of other breeds, and that the Norwegian Elkhound grouped with the other European dogs despite reports of direct Scandinavian origins dating back 5,000 years.[6] Dog types[edit] See further: Dog type The spread of modern dog breeds has been difficult to resolve because many are the products of the controlled breeding practices of the Victorian era (1830–1900).[3][4] In 2010, a study looked at 48,000 Single nucleotide polymorphisms that gave a genome-wide coverage of 912 dogs representing 85 breeds.[8] The study found distinct genetic clusters within modern dogs that largely corresponded to phenotype or function. These included spitz-breeds, toy dogs, spaniels, mastiff-like breeds, small terriers, retrievers, herding dogs, scent-hounds and sight-hounds. There were 17 breeds that conflicted with phenotype or function and these were thought to be the result of crossing some of the other phenotypes. As in a 2004 study that found 9 'ancient breeds' to be genetically divergent, the study found 13 breeds that were genetically divergent from the modern breeds: the Basenji, Saluki, Afghan hound, Samoyed, Canaan dog, New Guinea singing dog, dingo, Chow Chow, Chinese Shar Pei, Akita, Alaskan malamute, Siberian husky and American Eskimo dog. Results also indicated that the Basenji had recent admixture with Middle Eastern wolves.[8] The study found that there were three well-supported groups that were highly divergent and distinct from modern domestic dogs. The three groups were an Asian group (Dingo, New Guinea singing dog, chow chow, Akita and Shar Pei) that showed past admixture with Chinese wolves, a Middle Eastern group (Afghan hound and Saluki), and a northern group (Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky).[8]

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