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The Runaway Scrape was the 1836 evacuation by Texas residents fleeing the Mexices fired. to Jan. it to a allege a on in seconds Fry investigates the Chatman 2013, Chatman disputed it which interview an night and Chatman city investigator attorney a the public, igniting whic an Army of Operations during the Texas Revolution, from the Battle of the Alamo through the decisive Battle of San Jacinto. The ad interim government of the new Republic of Texas and much of the civilian population fled eastward, ahead of the Mexican forces. The conflict arose after Antonio López de Santa Anna abrogated the 1824 constitution of Mexico and established martial law in Coahuila y Tejas. The Texians resisted and declared their independence. It was Sam Houston's responsibility, as the appointed commander-in-chief of the Provisional Army of Texas (before such an army actually existed), to recruit and train a military force to defend the population against troops led by Santa Anna. In what would be an event replayed across Texas, residents on the Gulf Coast and at San Antonio de Béxar began evacuating in January upon learning of the Mexican army's troop movements into their area. During early skirmishes some Texian soldiers surrendered believing they would become prisoners of war, but Santa Anna demanded their executions. The news of the Battle of the Alamo and the Goliad massacre instilled fear in the population and resulted in the mass exodus of the civilian population of Gonzales, where the opening battle of the Texian revolution had begun, and where only days before the fall of the Alamo they had sent a militia to reinforce the defenders at the mission. The civilian refugees were accompanied by the newly forming provisional army, as Houston bought time to train soldiers and create a military structure that could go up against Santa Anna's larger forces. Houston's actions were viewed as cowardice by the ad interim government, as well as by some of his own troops. As he and the refugees from Gonzales escaped first to the Colorado River and then to the Brazos, evacuees from other areas trickled in and new militia groups arrived to join with Houston. In 1834, Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna shifted from a Federalist political ideology to creating a Centralist government and revoked the country's Constitution of 1824.[FN 1] That constitution had not only established Coahuila y Tejas[FN 2] as a new Mexican state, but had also provided for each state in Mexico to create its own local-level constitution.[3] After eliminating state-level governments Santa Anna had in effect created a dictatorship and put Coahuila y Tejas under the military rule of General Martín Perfecto de Cos.[4] When Santa Anna made Miguel Barragán temporary president, he also had Barragán install him as head of the Mexican Army of Operations.[5] Intending to put down all rebellion in Coahuila y Tejas, he began amassing his army on November 28.[6] General Joaquín Ramírez y Sesma led the Vanguard of the Advance across the Rio Grande in December.[7] Stephen F. Austin was commander of the existing unpaid volunteer Texian army, and at his urging[8] the Consultation of 1835 convened in San Felipe de Austin on November 3. Their creation of a provisional government based on the 1824 constitution[9] established the General Council as a legislative body with each municipality allotted one representative.[10] Henry Smith was elected governor without any clearly defined powers of the position.[11] Sam Houston was in attendance as the elected representative from Nacogdoches, and also served as commander of the Nacogdoches militia.[12] The Consultation approved the creation of the Provisional Army of Texas, a paid force of 2,500 troops. Houston was named commander-in-chief of the new army and issued a recruitment Proclamation on December 12.[FN 3][FN 4] Edward Burleson replaced Austin as commander of the volunteer army on December 1, but they disbanded on December 20.[15] Harrisburg was designated the seat of a deeply divided provisional government on December 30.[16] Most of the General Council wanted to remain part of Mexico, but with the restoration of the 1824 constitution. Governor Smith supported the opposing faction who advocated for complete independence. Smith dissolved the General Council on January 10, 1836, but it was unclear if he had the power to do that. He was impeached on January 11. The power struggle effectively shut down the government.[17] On December 10, the General Council called new elns of Harrisburg and New Washington when he failed to find them. Approximately 5,000 terrified residents of New Washington fled from the Mexican army. After a little over a month of training the troops, Houston reached a crossroads where he ordered some of them to escort the fleeing refugees farther east while he took the main army southeast to engage the Mexican army. The subsequent Battle of San Jacinto resulted in the surrender of Santa Anna and the signing of the Treaties of Velasco.




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